Glossary

A

Accessibility Features
The settings and tools available within the Student Testing Site, or as non-embedded support, that provide support for students with disabilities, such as features that allow students to change the color contrast or font size of an online test, or use of non-embedded translated test directions.
Accommodations (Non-standard)
Any change provided for a student's testing experience that affects the construct of the test, including the general skill that the test is intended to assess. For example, in a test intended to assess writing skills, a non-standard accommodation providing a scribe would change the test construct and be considered a non-standard accommodation. (For more information, see Special Documented Accommodations.)
Accommodations Standard
Test changes to promote accessibility for eligible students that are established by the state in the assessment programs that allow students with disabilities the opportunity to demonstrate their aptitude and achievement in testing situations rather than reflect their impairments. For example, the Text-To-Speech accommodation for ELA Reading passages available in the Student Testing Site make the ELA passages accessible to a student who may be visually impaired so they are considered a standard accommodation.
Adaptation
A change made in the presentation, setting, response, timing, or scheduling of a test that may or may not change the construct of the test, which is the general skill that the test is intended to assess. An example might include consideration of the lighting or furniture (if needed) or use of embedded universal tools/designated supports, such as streamline.
Aggregation
The compilation of test result data in a report that provides average scores for a group of students, such as the students in a roster or school.
Alert
A CAI system that identifies and alerts administrators about any student responses that may indicate troubled students.
Alignment
The association between an item on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Alternative and Augmentative Communication
AAC is a set of tools and strategies that an individual uses to solve everyday communicative challenges. Communication can take many forms such as: speech, a shared glance, text, gestures, facial expressions, touch, sign language, symbols, pictures, speech-generating devices, etc. Everyone uses multiple forms of communication, based upon the context and our communication partner. Effective communication occurs when the intent and meaning of one individual is understood by another person. The form is less important than the successful understanding of the message. https://isaac-online.org/english/what-is-aac/
Alternative Computer Input Technology
Assistive tools that allow students with various accessibility (such as physical or visual impairment), cognitive, or language needs to interact with a computer without using a traditional mouse and keyboard setup.
Annual Assessment Window
A designated time period each school year during which schools administer tests to students.
Appeal
A District Administrator request to resolve a test impropriety (also known as a testing incident), or irregularity which may interrupt the normal workflow of a test opportunity. Appeals are created and processed in TIDE.
Assessment
An online or paper test consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as a test.
Assessment Reports
Reports available in the Reporting system that provide detailed student performance data for an individual test taken by an individual student or group of students.
Assessment Viewing Application
A CAI application within the Test Delivery System (TDS) that allows educators to view the content of interim assessments as they will appear to students.
Assistive Keyboard and Mouse Input Technology
Assistive tools that provide additional support to students with access needs that are typically physical in nature. Examples might include a specialized keyboard and/or adaptive mouse/joystick to respond to test items.
Assistive Technology
Any hardware or software that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of an individual with a disability.
Authoring
A CAI system that allows educators to create original, standard-aligned items and add them to tests, which can be published to the Test Delivery System (TDS) for administration to students.
Autonomous Single App Mode
A special feature available in some testing devices that allows that device to lock its focus onto a single application.

B

Braille Ready File
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing only text or formatted tables.

C

Cambium Assessment Inc
An education company owned by Cambium Learning Group that develops innovative online assessment applications, such as TDS and TIDE.
Centralized Reporting System
A CAI system that provides comprehensive student performance reports on assessments and allows educators to hand-score some test items..
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google.
Chromebook
A laptop running Chrome OS.
Class Code
A code assigned to a student in TIDE. Students' class codes can be edited either individually or by uploading a student information file.
Cluster
May refer to either of two things:
-A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
-A set of items or interactions within a single item that engages students in activity aligned to a specific standard.
Cohort
A group of students who have something in common, such as their class membership. In test reports, cohorts are commonly used to aggregate data for a group of students and measure their performance in an individual test or over time.
Comma-Separated Values
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Common Core State Standards
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are a set of academic standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy that are grounded in evidence and designed to ensure that all students have the academic knowledge and skills they need in these core subjects to succeed after high school. (NOTE: In Connecticut, these are referred to the Connecticut Core Standards.)
Complexity
The level of cognitive demand expected for a student to correctly answer a test item.
Condition Code
A code applied in place of a score on an assessment report when a student's response to a test item cannot be scored.
Connecticut Comprehensive Assessment Program Portal
This site provides access to resources for the Smarter Balanced Assessments in Mathematics and English Language Arts, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Assessments, the Connecticut Alternate Assessment (CTAA), and the Connecticut Alternate Science (CTAS) Assessment.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills aligned to a standard that is intended to measure a specific skill or ability, such as reading or mathematical computation.
Constructed Response
Provides a box in which the students freely type in an answer.
Content
The items or stimuli within a test: reading, math, or science passages, other media within a stimulus, the prompt, and the response area within an item.
Content Standard
The skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Context Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear inside a menu for student selection and are available for individual items and stimuli.
Cut Score
A specific point on a test's score scale that distinguishes between two performance levels. Scores at or above that point are interpreted to mean something different from scores below that point. Cut scores can determine if a student's test score is below, at/near, or above standard.

D

Data Entry Interface
A CAI system that allows educators to enter the Connecticut Alternate Assessment Eligibility Form or student performance data, such as a response or score, directly into a test form. This system is used for the transcription of Large Print and Braille test booklets.
Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and to take tests, including, but not limited to, desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets, and external assistive technologies for students requiring certain accommodations.
Dimension
A type of scoring criterion in an item's rubric.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various sub-groups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Administrator
A CAI system user role representing an administrator responsible as a single point of contact for an entire district.
District Coordinator
A CAI system user role representing a coordinator for an entire district. Also referred to as the District Test Coordinator.
District Reporting Administrator
This role allows district users access to the reporting system.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
Duxbury Braille Translator
Accessibility software used to emboss BRF test items in a Braille test.

E

Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in TIDE that determine which tests or accommodations a student will be able to access in TDS.
Embedded Designated Support
Embedded designated supports are those built-in accessibility features available in the Student Testing Site for use by any student for whom the need has been indicated by an educator (or team of educators with parent/guardian and student).
End of Life
The projected date on which CAI plans to end the Test Delivery System's support for an operating system version.
English Learner
A student whose native language is not English and who has not mastered speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
Equation Editor
An item type that allows students to use a flexible entry of one or more mathematical expressions.
Equation Response
This item type displays a basic numeric keypad or a full array of mathematical operators, symbols, and functions that must be used to demonstrate an answer. To complete the item, the student must navigate the tool keypad.
Errors of Measurement
Typically referred to as standard error of measurement. The amount or difference between a student’s actual score and the theoretical true score. The degree of inherent imprecision in student performance reports based on test content, administration, scoring, or examinee conditions.
Evidence-Based Selected Response
An item type that requires students to answer a multi-part question related to an accompanying passage or information presented in the stem.
Exemplar
An element included in an item's scoring rubric that provides an example of a student response that would earn a certain number of points.
Exemption from Testing
In Connecticut, all students are required to participate in state-wide summative testing. In rare and specific cases, some students may qualify for a medical exemption.
Expiration Rules
The rules that determine how long it takes a test opportunity to expire when a student starts it without completing it. Students cannot make any additional changes to a test opportunity once it expires.
External Copy
An item type that requires students to click on a highlighted word or sentence to respond. The word or sentence is then copied into the response box.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Fedora
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Firewall
A network security system that monitors traffic and prevents unauthorized access to the network.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Form
A compilation of test items and/or stimuli that make up the segments of an assessment. Also known as a test form.
Frequency-Distribution Report
A report that shows the frequency or count of a particular score or outcome by student group or demographic.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment.
Grace Period Extension
A grace period extension allows the student to review previously answered questions upon logging back into the test after expiration of the pause rule.
Grade Level
The grade in which a student is enrolled or reported in the Publis School Information System (PSIS). This is typically the academic grade of same-age peers who are in a general education classroom.
Grade range
Two or more consecutive grade levels (for example, grades 3 through 6).
Graphic Response
This is a flexible platform to create a wide variety of items from drag-and-drop, to drawing on a coordinate plane to hot spots.
Grid Item
A type of item interaction that can offer several different ways for the student to interact with a grid area, such as dragging an object onto the grid canvas or plotting points on a graph.

H

Hand Scoring
The process of manually scoring open-ended test items, which may be performed by educators in the Centralized Reporting System.
Hot Text
This item type gives the student the ability to highlight or move text. Words or groups of words can be selected, dragged, and rearranged. The student may also have the ability to highlight specific words or phrases.

I

Individual Student Report
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on an individual test.
Individualized Education Program
A written education program for each eligible child with a disability that is developed by a team of professionals (administrators, teachers, therapists, etc.)and the child’s parents. It is reviewed and updated at least yearly and describes the child’s present levels of performance, what the child’s learning needs are, and what services the child will need.

Interaction
A component of a test item that students can interact with, such as a list of options they can select from or a text box in which they type a response. A test item may include one or more individual interactions.
Invalidate a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity, which results in the student having no further opportunities for the test. Invalidated tests will not be scored.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
A scored question, exercise, or task on a test that students interact with to enter a response.

J

Job Access with Speech
A screen reader software designed to help individuals with vision-impairments use computer applications.

K

Keyboard Command
A key or combination of keys students can press in order to perform an action in the Student Testing Site.
Kiosk Mode
A feature available in certain operating systems in which a device allows access only to a specific application, such as CAI's Secure Browser.

L

Limited English Proficiency
A student whose native language is not English and who has not mastered speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Local Area Network
A network that connects a group of computers that are in the same location.
Longitudinal Report
A type of report available in the Reporting system that shows a comparison of assessment results for a particular student or group of students at two or more points in time.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Machine-Scored Constructed Response
A type of written response item that requires scoring logic or a machine rubric to score.
Mobile Secure Browser
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.
Multiple Choice
An item type that requires students to select a single answer from a list of options.
Multiple Select
An item type that requires students to select one or more answer options from a list of options.

N

Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics
A Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly.

O

Open Ended
An item type that requires students to type a response in a text box.
Operational
In student testing, this term refers to live, summative assessment, as distinct from practice or interim testing. An operational assessment is one that is developed and administered at a specified time and whose scoring results are used for the purpose of meeting local, state, and/or federal requirements.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Options
The response choices to an item's stem from which students select an answer.
Out-of-Level Testing
The administration of an interim assessment at a level above or below a student’s present grade level to enable the student to be assessed at the level of instruction rather than the level of enrollment.
Overage
In paper orders managed in TIDE, the percentage of extra test materials to be sent in case they are needed.

P

Paper Order
Also known as a materials order for Braille and Large Print. Materials include test booklets and answer sheets. These materials can be ordererd and tracked in TIDE.
Participation Rate
In student testing, the percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who could have taken the test.
Participation Report by SSID
A report available in TIDE that details the status for each test opportunity started by a particular student.
Pause Rule
A rule in the Student Testing Site that restricts students from modifying their responses to previous items if they pause their test and return to it after exceeding a certain time limit.
Performance on Tests Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a user's associated students.
Permissive Mode
A Secure Browser setting that allows a student to use pre-approved hardware or software that would otherwise be blocked by the Secure Browser.
Personally Identifying Information
Information that could identify an individual person, such as a student's name and date of birth.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
PreID Label
A label affixed to a student’s physical testing materials, such as a paper answer booklet.
PreID Roster
A type of roster that is implicitly created based on the class codes assigned to students in TIDE. When a student's class code is edited, their PreID roster membership is automatically changed as well.
Print Request
A TA Site feature in which students with the appropriate test settings may request printouts of test content, which the test administrator may approve. This feature is only allowable for those students approved for the special documented accommodation Print on Demand.
Printer File
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing Nemeth code or tactile graphics.
Prompt
The component of an item that provides students with the instructions and the question.

R

Refreshable Braille Display
An assistive technology device for students with visual-impairments that translates text to a readable braille format.
Remote Administration
Remote test administration is when a student participates in testing in the home environment and the test administrator is not physically present.
Re-open a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test opportunity that was completed.
Reopen Test Segment
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test segment that a student already submitted. This is available only if the student has not yet started a new test segment.
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Reset a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses on the test), or allows the data entry operator to restart the data entry process.
Restore a Test that was Reset
Returns a test from the reset status to its prior status
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other groups, such as students who have taken honors courses.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

Constructed Response
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Note pad
An universal tool that requires students to respond by using drawing tools in a canvas area.
Scaffolding Item
An item type typically used in alternative assessments that requires students to respond by selecting an answer card from a list of options.
School Report Viewer
A CAI system user role that may view student reports for their school.
School Year
The academic year, given as a range (for example, 2020 to 2021).
Score Input
An item type that is used for interim tests in which teachers or proctors enter a student's score directly into the Centralized Reporting System.
Scoring Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.
Screen Magnifier Technology
A type of assistive technology that enlarges the content displayed on the computer screen in order to assist students with visual impairments.
Screen Reader
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for students with visual-impairments. I added Text-to-Speech as a new entry.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Secure Browser
The CAI browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox
The secure inbox shared across multiple CAI systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Secure Student Identifier
A unique number or alphanumeric code assigned by the state to a student for identification purposes.
Short Answer
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Single Sign-On
An item type that requires students to set the parameters of an interactive animation and extrapolate data in a table.
Single Sign-On
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system.
Skill Area
A reporting category or topic by which items are organized in a test based on related standards measured.
Special Documented Accommodation - non-standard
In exceptional circumstances, there may be a student whose disabilities are such that the allowable accommodations listed in the Assessment Guidelines would be insufficient to provide access to the assessment. In these cases, students may require non-standard or customized accommodation. Examples may include a human signer or math manipulatives. A petition for Approval of Special Documented Accommodations from the school is required.
Speech-to-Text
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that transcribes a student's speech and enters it into a text box.
Standard
The specific skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
State Administrator
A CAI system user role that may have access to any special administrative features available in a system.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Alerts
A CAI system that identifies and alerts administrators about any student responses that may indicate troubled students.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.
Student Not Found Discrepancy
A type of test discrepancy resolved in TIDE that occurs when the identifying information on a paper answer document is not found in TIDE.
Student Portfolio Report
A report available in the Reporting system that lists all the assessments completed by a particular student.
Student Testing Site
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests. Both practice and operational Student Testing Sites are available. The operational site is also known as the Secure Browser.

T

Table Input
An item type that requires students to respond by entering information in a table.
Table Item
An item type that displays a table with missing information. Students may complete the table by entering an answer in the text box(es) displayed.
Table Match
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking checkboxes in the cells of a table to match together terms that appear in the column and row headers.
Take a Test
A Microsoft application that allows students to take a test securely in Windows. The Take a Test app may be used as an alternative to the CAI Secure Browser.
Teacher
A CAI system user role, typically one that is associated with one or more rosters.
Teacher Administering the Alternate Assessment
An individual trained to administer alternate assessments to eligible students.
Teacher Hand Scoring System
A CAI system that allows users to manually enter scores for students' responses to interim test items that cannot be scored automatically.
Test
An online or paper form consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as an assessment.
Test Administration Site
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions. Both practice and operational TA Sites exist. Also known as the TA Interface.
Test Administrator
A CAI system user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number and percentage of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System
A set of CAI systems used by educators to proctor online test sessions and by students to complete online assessments. TDS includes the TA Site, the Student Testing Site, the Assessment Viewing Application, and the Data Entry Interface.
Test Form
A compilation of one or more test items and/or tasks that comprise the full test.
Test Impropriety
Any action or violation, whether deliberate or accidental, that would invalidate a test. Also known as a testing incident.
Test Information and Distribution Engine
A CAI system that allows educators to manage user and student information. It is responsible for student registration, gathering of demographic data, and materials ordering.
Test Label
The name of an assessment as displayed in CAI systems.
Test Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Test Reason
A category assigned to a test opportunity, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes. Test reasons can be assigned to test opportunities in TDS or the Reporting system.
Test Reason Manager
A feature in the Reporting system that allows users to set and modify the test reasons assigned to test opportunities.
Test Segment
A section of a test. Tests may be divided into multiple segments based on the skills measured, types of tasks, and/or tools available in that section.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the TA Site in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Student Testing Site.
Test Status Code Report
Test Status Code Reports are specific reports available in TIDE that are used to view each student’s test status at a district or school level.
Test Ticket
A piece of paper that includes a student’s username and SASID for logging in to a test in TDS.
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity.
Test Window
The date range in which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Text-to-Speech
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for students with visual-impairments.
The Connecticut Comprehensive Assessment Program Portal
A website that serves as a one-stop shop for educators involved in the online assessment process, providing access to CAI systems, training sites, tutorials, and other resources.
Tiger Max Embosser
Accessibility software used to emboss PRN test items in a Braille test.
Tools for Teachers
This role only provides the user with access to Tools for Teachers
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Site that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Ubuntu
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Uncontracted Braille
A version of Braille that uses cells of dots to represent individual letters, numbers, and symbols.
User
An educator who is able to access and use a CAI system. Accounts for users can be created in TIDE.
User Role
In CAI systems, a role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.

V

Voice Pack
A software tool for emulating speech. Voice packs must be present in testing devices for any students who will use text-to-speech (TTS).

W

Writing Constructed Response
An item type that requires students to respond by typing an answer in a text box.
Writing Extended Response
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a long answer in a text box.
Writing Extended-Response Item
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a longer text response, such as an essay.
Writing Short Response
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a short answer in a text box.